Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements – Estimating road and railway infrastructure capacity and costs to 2050

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In the past decade, global average per‐capita GDP increased nearly 75% (in real, 2010 USD), with average per‐capita GDP in regions such as China, India, Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe more than doubling (UNSD, 2010). This growth in wealth contributed to a considerable surge in demand for mobility, both in terms of passenger travel and in movement of goods. In particular, road and rail passenger and freight travel increased by 40%, or by 15 trillion annual person‐ kilometres (pkm) and freight tonne‐kilometres (tkm) since 2000 – the equivalent of flying more than 400 million people around the circumference of the globe each year (IEA, 2012). Asia and the Pacific in particular accounted for more than half of that growth.