Numerous recent changes in the mining industry have led governments to an increased interest in the tender process as a means of awarding mineral rights. High demand and high mineral prices driven by rapid economic growth in countries such as Brazil, China, and India, and the emergence of new global companies in these countries, have resulted in increased competition to obtain access to mineral resources worldwide. Governments believe they are in a position to demand better terms, not only with respect to fiscal considerations but also with regard to the granting of access—the award of mineral rights—and the overall development impact of mining, including infrastructure, all of which can be defined and packaged in a tender.
To address these considerations, the World Bank’s Sustainable Energy, Gas, Oil and Mining Department developed this paper to provide guidance and good practice examples to maximize the overall benefits for countries seeking to award a contract for a known mineral resource. The paper primarily focuses on the tendering of mineral assets; it also touches on the broader subject of mine-related infrastructure.